Cultural Ecosystem Services (CES) in Stewardship and Management: A Compilation of Case Studies

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Ecosystem service assessments are a top priority at many reserves in the National Estuarine Research Reserve System. However, within ecosystem services research, there is a critical gap surrounding the equitable representation of cultural ecosystem services (CES) — one of four main categories of ecosystem services (the others being supporting, provisioning, and regulating services). In collaboration with Reserve partners in Heʻeia and Kachemak Bay, this project aims to advance the equitable representation of CES in estuary stewardship and management within and beyond the NERRS. To do so, the project team implemented an interdisciplinary and mixed methods approach, including the development of informational materials for diverse end users.

About this resource

This factsheet consolidates case studies of applied CES assessments. Together with background information about the project, team, and assessment details, the case studies also outline restoration, management, and other programmatic priorities that have been shaped by expanding and deepening CES research.


Sterling et al. 2021. "Expanding and Deepening the Application of Cultural Ecosystem Services in Estuary Stewardship and Management". A brief prepared with support from a 2020 NERRS Science Collaborative Catalyst Grant.